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Frequently asked questions

We are grateful for the many students who choose The Salvation Army for their assignments and research. To help you, we have compiled a list of answers to frequently asked questions (FAQ).

We hope this information will provide the details you need to complete your assignment. 

If you need to

  • Interview a member of The Salvation Army, or if you have further questions regarding our mission, beliefs, values, or how we help the community,
  • Obtain more information on our welfare, social work or a specific service,

Please contact your nearest centre or Corps.

If there’s some information you think we should add to the above Student FAQ, please contact us by writing to: salvosaus@aus.salvationarmy.org.

General Questions

What are the values and mission?

International Mission Statement

The Salvation Army, an international movement, is an evangelical part of the universal Christian Church. 

Its message is based on the Bible. Its ministry is motivated by love for God. Its mission is to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ and meet human needs in his name without discrimination.

Mission Values of The Salvation Army Australia Southern Territory

Our Mission

The Salvation Army is a Christian movement dedicated to sharing the love of Jesus. We share the love of Jesus by: 

  • Caring for people
    Being there when people need us most. We offer care and compassion as a sacred encounter with transformative potential.
  • Creating faith pathways
    Taking a holistic approach to the human condition that values spirituality. We graciously share the Good News of Jesus and grow in faith together
  • Building healthy communities
    Investing ourselves in relationships that promote mutual flourishing. We find the wholeness God intends for us in community.
  • Working for justice
    Tackling the social systems that harm creation and strip away human dignity. We join God’s work to build a fairer world where all can thrive.

Our Values 

Recognising that God is always at work in the world we value:

  • Integrity
    Being honest and accountable in all we do.
  • Compassion
    Hearing and responding to pain with love.
  • Respect
    Affirming the worth and capacity of all people.
  • Diversity
    Embracing difference as a gift.
  • Collaboration
    Creating partnerships in mission.

We commit ourselves in prayer and practice to this land of Australia and its people, seeking reconciliation, unity and equity.

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How are these aims and values achieved?

In each community where The Salvation Army has a presence, our officers (who are ordained ministers), staff and volunteers review the local needs and establish relevant objectives. 

The Salvation Army seeks to provide holistic support which includes sharing our faith through worship. We also provide social and community support programs and services including:

  • Soup vans - delivering hot soup and bread to the hungry
  • Creative Opportunities - meaningful employment and training opportunities for people with disabilities
  • Flying Padre - a Salvation Army officer who flies his plane to visit remote stations in the Northern Territory

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How do you get involved?

There are many ways to participate in The Salvation Army, including:

If a person would like to become an Officer (minister) in The Salvation Army, they must be an adult member of The Salvation Army church and undergo 2 years of Officers training.

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How do people access services?

Persons in need of assistance should contact their local Salvation Army support service or church.

The Salvation Army is committed to assisting all people without regard to nationality, race, belief, sexuality, ability, or judgement of behaviour. We seek to provide services and support that address the needs of the individual.

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How many people are assisted?

In a typical week, across Australia, we provide (approximate figures):

  • 100,000 meals for the hungry
  • 2,000 beds for the homeless
  • 5,000 to 8,000 food vouchers
  • 1,000 people with assistance in finding employment
  • Refuge to 500 victims of abuse
  • Assistance to 500 people addicted to drugs, alcohol or gambling
  • Several thousand people with counselling
  • 3,000 elderly people with aged care services
  • 40 people in the court system with chaplaincy services
  • Family tracing services which locate 40 missing family members

2017 Service Highlights:

  • 749 social programmes/activities.
  • 671,382 episodes* of care across all our social programmes.
  • 132,358 episodes of supportfor people experiencing immediate financial difficulty.
  • 260,575 vouchers distributed to people in need.
  • 189,851 episodes of emergency and material aid support (including case management).
  • 37,892 episodes of specialised financial counselling to assist people in financial crisis.
  • 32,961 episodes of care to people experiencing family violence. 
  • 12,009 people seeking assistance identified as Aboriginal orTorres Strait Islander.
  • 61,587 people supported who were homeless or at risk of homelessness (including 10,946 children).

 *An episode refers to a contact on a single day of support

The Salvation Army tries to address each person's problems and needs as a whole. By doing this we try to help people get back on their feet and progressively able to take care of themselves.

We recognise that each individual that comes to us for help has unique and often complex needs. Whether it is short-term assistance such as providing food hampers to get a family through a rough patch or working with someone to overcome addiction, we aim to provide the best possible care to address their needs.

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What are our funding sources?

Our income to fund these services was $420.8 million and came from the following sources:

The Salvation Army 2017 Sources of Income





Government Income 215,299
Trading Revenue 118,975
Residents Contributions 19,232
Red Shield Appeal/Other Donations  
Investment Income 13,885
Legacies 5,259
Miscellaneous 9,306
Total Income 420,833










The total costs of providing all Salvation Army social services in Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia and Northern Territory for the 2016-2017 fiscal year* was over $393 million. This is broken down as follows:
* from our latest Annual Report.

Social expenditure




Aged Care & Disability Services 37,751
Out-of-Home Care 34,449
Employment, Education and Training 33,566
Salvos Stores 92,615
Housing and Homelessness 74,369
Family and Domestic Violence 10,190
Community Support Services 31,379
Chaplaincy 6,754
Addiction, Alcohol and Other Drugs 29,014
Other Social Welfare Programmes   
Adminstration and Research 25,572
Total Social Centre Expenditure 380,952
Other Expenditure 
(including Red Shield Appeal) 
Total Expenditure 393,749

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How are funds raised?

The Salvation Army work is largely supported by the generosity of the public. Funds are raised by:

  • Doorknocking and face to face during our annual Red Shield Appeal
  • Online via this website
  • Telephone via 13 SALVOS (13 72 58)
  • Wills and bequests
  • Direct mail sent to people's homes
  • Corporate and business donations
  • Special events such as motorcycle rallies or fundraising concerts
  • Salvos Stores
  • Special marketing promotions, such as Kmart Wishing Tree or the Myer Spirit of Christmas CD
  • Salvos Crisis Partners - a program for people who make a monthly donation
  • Food bank - boxed or canned foods donated by stores
  • Child Sponsorship program to help children overseas

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How are donations used?

The Salvation Army helps people in our local communities. 

Every dollar donated goes to assist families and individuals in need. Donations help people get back on their feet and become part of their community again.

To ensure ongoing funding of our social programs, The Salvation Army invests 21% of funds raised into activities that ensure our financial sustainability. These activities include the annual doorknock, donation processing, corporate and community partnerships, and managing our bequest program.

We are grateful for the enormous support we receive from the Australian public and strive to ensure that we utilise donations in the most effective way possible.

The Salvation Army is committed to assisting all people without regard to nationality, race, belief, sexuality, ability, or judgement of behaviour. 

Donations are used to fund the following programmes:


  • Aged care services
  • Alcohol detoxification facilities and services
  • Anger management programmes
  • Asylum seeker support services
  • Chaplaincy services
  • Child programmes & services
  • Community support programmes
  • Court and prison services
  • Crisis accommodation / Contact / Counselling centres
  • Crisis telephone support services
  • Critical incident counselling
  • Disability services
  • Disaster relief
  • Domestic and family violence services
  • Drug addiction detoxification
  • Drug and alcohol programmes
  • Emergency services
  • Employment training programmes
  • Family counseling & welfare services
  • Family crisis and transitional housing
  • Family tracing (missing persons)
  • Flying Padre and outback services
  • Food vans
  • Gambling counselling
  • Grief counselling
  • Health information exchange
  • Home and school support programmes
  • Homeless accommodation centres
  • Hostels for youth
  • Housing services
  • Human trafficking safe house
  • Marriage enrichment
  • Material aid
  • Meals programmes
  • Mental health services
  • Migrant and refugee services
  • Outreach services
  • Parenting skills
  • Recreation programmes
  • Refuge for victims of violence
  • Research and advocacy
  • Rural support services
  • Social policy and social justice services
  • Survivors of suicide counselling groups
  • Youth crisis drop-in centres
  • Youth support programmes

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How are Red Shield funds distributed?

The Red Shield Appeal is The Salvation Army's major annual fundraising campaign and helps us to support more than one million Australians each year.

Our organisation works to ensure that every donation is used most effectively, and administration costs are kept to a minimum.

Approximately 79 cents in every dollar donated to The Salvation Army Red Shield Appeal goes directly to those in need, which is one of the most efficient administration rates of any charity in Australia.

Donations help fund our vast network of social and community services.

These services include emergency and disaster relief, homeless shelters, youth drop-in centres and education/training programs, drug and alcohol rehabilitation, family tracing services, financial and telephone crisis counselling, aged care, employment services, training programs, and chaplaincy to isolated rural communities, to emergency service personnel and within our courts and prison system.

We believe that as we continue to work in partnership with our generous donors, our army of volunteers (including 100,000 volunteer collectors alone for the Red Shield Appeal doorknock) and the business community, we can make a difference, see lives transformed and help make Australia an even better place.

For more information, or to find out how you can help, please visit salvationarmy.org.au/redshieldappeal.

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When did the Red Shield Appeal start?

In 1965 the first trial Red Shield Appeal door knock was conducted in the Sydney area. For the first time instead of just using uniformed Salvos to collect night after night over a three month period as part of a 'self denial appeal', the friends of the Salvos took part in a one morning doorknock under the new name.

The idea came from Canada where The Salvation Army had used this method and name since the late 1940's. The Red Shield approach was based on the popular Salvation Army Red Shield huts and services provided by us during World War II for all the western nations, including Australia and Canada.

Two Australian Salvation Army officers, Majors Don Campbell and Charles Cross, investigated the Canadian idea of running an annual Red Shield Appeal. Major Cross passed on his knowledge to The Salvation Army in Sydney where they quickly instigated the first trial in Sydney. Major Campbell in Melbourne passed on his information to Colonel Harry Goffin and Captain Smith who implemented it progressively in the southern states of Australia.

Also in 1965 Salvation Army centres in North Western Tasmania successfully carried out a one day door knock with the help of community groups and friends. In 1968 the City of Melbourne made an attempt to doorknock the whole city and advertise the event through all main media.

In 1969 the whole of Victoria took part in the Red Shield Appeal doorknock and a leading advertising agency developed an advertising campaign including the now famous "Thank God for the Salvos" slogan and donated all their time. Melbourne's leading film maker donated a free 30 second TV commercial, five leading photographers travelled the state and contributed an outstanding photographic display, and all the media donated time and space. The result was a 100% increase in the appeal total for Victoria to $200,000.

First nation-wide Red Shield Appeal

In 1970 we held our first national appeal, again using the 'Thank God for the Salvos' advertising campaign, and this time the donations of media space and time were national. The appeal raised $1 million dollars across Australia.

The Salvation Army was the first charity to hold a national doorknock, the first to have a national advertising campaign, and the first to have a national TV campaign. The results in terms of donations, change in awareness and attitude to The Salvation Army and its clients were outstanding.

Today we have an income of more than $80 million from the Red Shield Appeal, plus another $28.9 million from wills and bequests.

Our regular Newspoll shows that the Red Shield Appeal is known by 96% of the population and 91% have a positive attitude to the 'Salvos' and more than 90% know the slogan, "Thank God for the Salvos".

The first time we conducted such research in 1970 we were the rated the sixth most important appeal in Australia; today we are very clearly the appeal with the highest regard. The sad fact is that a new problem has developed to take advantage of this positive image - more than 50% of people are not at home when we call for a donation and we now have a far higher income from those who donate through the mail, via the internet, and through regular monthly donations.

The Red Shield Appeal today

We rely on the Red Shield Appeal to supplement the programs which are paid for by government contributions.

Each week we serve 100,000 meals, provide beds to 2,000 homeless people, distribute many blankets, support 500 people addicted with rehabilitation, provide refuge to 400 victims of domestic abuse and counselling to thousands of people.

The Salvation Army thanks God for the way in which the Red Shield Appeal has given us a life line between a caring Australian public and the people in our society who we help to shield.

Today we depend more than ever on the proceeds from the Red Shield Appeal and want to thank the people of Australia for the support they continue to give us to assist those in need.

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Are Salvos Stores and Family Stores run just to make money?

The Salvation Army operates more than 400 stores throughout Australia selling predominantly (but not only) preloved goods donated by the public.

While we rely heavily on the generosity of the public and thousands of community volunteers, we also have a professional retail network and a great team of retail managers who oversee our operations.  In 2016/2017 Salvos Stores generated $23.1 million surplus for Salvation Army programs including goods to the value of $2.3 million given away free of charge to people who are experiencing hardship and seek assistance through Salvation Army Community Support Centres.

During the last financial year Salvos Stores reused over 21 million individual items, diverting nearly 20,000tonnes from landfill. 

Each of our stores also operates as a community contact point, and our staff can tell countless stories of customers who have requested - and been given - contact details for our churches, emergency relief programs and counselling services.

Speaking of our staff, there are thousands of Australians who want to help others in their local community in some way, and have chosen to do so by volunteering in our shops. We value these people highly as they freely give back to their local community.

So the next time you want to pick up a bargain or search for collector's pieces and rare treasures, drop into one of our stores and chat with our friendly staff. Every dollar you spend will go towards helping others in need or distress.

You can even pick up a copy of Warcry while you're there!

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What is the organisational structure?

The Salvation Army is a world-wide Christian church. The Salvation Army International Headquarters (IHQ) is based in London.

Our work in Australia is governed by two Territorial Headquarters (THQ) which report to London.

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What government regulations apply?

The Salvation Army is a legally registered religious organisation, and as a result is not required to register as a charity.

The Australian community recognises us as a not-for-profit social welfare organisation.

Because The Salvation Army runs many different programs and has a wide range of activities, we are subject to Federal, state and local government policies and regulations for the following areas:

  • Aged care services
  • Child and adolescent services
  • Counselling services
  • Crisis accommodation services
  • Disability services
  • Drug and alcohol programmes
  • Employment training programmes
  • Family Housing programmes
  • Fundraising
  • Health information services
  • Accommodation centres
  • Intellectual disability services
  • Migrant services
  • Privacy
  • Youth crisis and support services
  • Business regulations governing Salvos Stores

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What is the history of The Salvation Army?

The Salvation Army is a world-wide Christian church. Its message is based on the Bible. Its ministry is motivated by love for God. Its mission is to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ and meet human needs in his name without discrimination.

The Salvation Army's beginnings date back to 2 July 1865 when a Methodist minister named William Booth began preaching to and helping the poor and underprivileged in London; by 1867 it had developed into a ministry offering basic schooling, reading rooms, penny banks, soup kitchens, and relief aid to the destitute.

In 1880, John Gore and Edward Saunders brought The Salvation Army to Australia. They held a street meeting in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, and their parting invitation to those standing around listening was, "If there is any man here who hasn't had a decent meal today, let him come home to tea with me."

The following dates are generally accepted as those on which The Salvation Army commenced work in the Australasian colonies:

South Australia - 5 September 1880 
New South Wales - 4 December 1882 
Victoria - 24 December 1882 
New Zealand - April 1883 
Tasmania - November 1883 
Queensland - 1885 
Western Australia - December 1891
Northern Territory - 1940's

The name of The Salvation Army:

1865 - Originally called the Christian Revival Society, and soon after called the East London Christian Mission. 

1867 - The organisation grew rapidly and became known simply as the Christian Mission.

1878 - William Booth was perusing a printer's proof for a pamphlet which referred to the Christian Mission as a ' volunteer army'. Booth swept his pen through the word ' volunteer' and changed it to read 'Salvation Army'. The name was adopted.

Visit our history and heritage page to learn more about The Salvation Army 

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How has the Salvation Army changed?

In the year 1900, The Salvation Army in Australia could boast the following statistics:

Officers & Cadets & Employees: 1,929 
Soldiers (Members) estimated at 50,000 
Corps (Churches): 512 
Outposts: 858 

In 1903, The Salvation Army made claim to .082 per cent of Australia's population. That percentage has not been met since.

In 2002, Worldwide, The Salvation Army had:

Officers & Cadets (ministers): 26,462
Employees: 112,535
Soldiers (members): 1,640,962
Corps (churches) & outposts: 13,188

In 2017, The Salvation Army in VIC, TAS, SA, NT, WA has:

Officers: 417
Employees: 4,717
Social Centres/Programmes: 749
Corps (Churches): 161
Employment Plus Offices: 50 
Salvos Stores: 216

Worldwide, The Salvation Army has:

Officers & Cadets (ministers): 29,041
Employees: 111,859
Soldiers (members): 1,182,100
Corps (churches) & outposts: 14,527

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Can I use logos and images in my assignment?

Students and teachers are welcome to use The Salvation Army's logos and images in their classroom assignments, reports and presentations.

However, they cannot be used on a website, book, magazine, journal, published study or report, or by other organisations, businesses or individuals without prior written permission. Requests for such use of copyrighted symbols and images should be emailed to our media team, providing specific details regarding the desired use of the image or symbol.

All Salvation Army symbols and images are trademarked or copyrighted.

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What are the Salvos doing about unemployment?

For over 100 years The Salvation Army has engaged in seeking to assist unemployed people. Not only with material goods but also in the area of seeking new employment opportunities.

In response to Government funding arrangements during the 1990s, The Salvation Army tendered for the opportunity to join the Job network scheme. Our successful application enabled the Salvos to establish a National Employment Service, known as The Salvation Army Employment Plus, in May 1998. Since then we have worked with more than 200,000 businesses and assisted more than 500,000 job seekers to find employment. 

Operating at sites across seven states and territories, Employment Plus is now one of Australia’s largest providers of government-funded employment services. We provide job seekers with access to specialised training, work experience and a range of support services. We also work closely with businesses across all sectors, finding the right people to fulfil their needs.

Because every person looking for work has a different story, and faces different barriers to employment, Employment Plus offers a wide variety of programs and services for our job seekers. These range from accredited and non-accredited training courses delivered by our registered training organisation (Training Plus), to allied health services that help people break down some of the barriers they face that are holding them back from employment. Employment Plus is also able to refer clients to services within the broader Salvation Army, such as food assistance, homelessness services and substance rehabilitation programs. 

As a not-for-profit organisation, any surplus Employment Plus makes is directed back into The Salvation Army’s social programs –providing relief to the homeless, the underprivileged, victims of disaster and many other local programs that make a difference in people’s lives.

You are invited to view our website at: www.employmentplus.com.au

Alternatively, if you are interested in working for The Salvation Army check out our employment page.

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Do I have to be a Salvo to work for the Salvos?

There is not a pre-requesite for employment to be a “Salvo”.  In the traditional sense of the term, Salvos are members of The Salvation Army who worship and serve together as a Christian congregation.  The Salvation Army , an international movement, is an evangelical part of the universal Christian Church.  Its message is based on the bible.  Its ministry is motivated by the love of God.  Its mission is to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ and to meet human need in his name without discrimination.

All employees in non-ministry positions in the Army are expected to work in accordance with Australia's mission and values and comply with official standards.  The mission is four-fold: Caring for people, Creating faith pathways, Building healthy communities, Working for justice.

Our values are that of Integrity - Being honest and accountable in all we do; Compassion - Hearing and responding to pain with love; Respect - Affirming the worth and capacity of all people; Diversity - Embracing difference as a gift; Collaboration - Creating partnerships in mission.

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How and where did the Salvos start in Australia?

The Salvation Army has been in Australia for over 135 years.

Early in 1880, two migrant Salvos from the UK—Edward Saunders and John Gore—were both living in Adelaide.

The two men met unexpectedly when Saunders heard Gore telling a group of people how he became a Christian in London while attending the Christian Mission (as The Salvation Army was known in its early days).

Saunders was excited to discover a fellow Salvo and together they decided it was time to start the movement in Australia.

They wrote to the General (world leader of The Salvation Army) in London and told him they had discovered enough Salvos in Australia to commence meetings. They were even bold enough to suggest to the General who they thought he should send to help and Saunders offered to pay the fare to Australia for the new officers (ministers).

On 5 September, 1880 they conducted an open air service in Adelaide's Botanic Park where Gore issued this invitation: 'If there is any man here who hasn't had a decent meal today, let him come home to tea with me.'

This was the beginning of The Salvation Army in Australia. They stood on a horse buggy for that first meeting and later found a hall to hold meetings.

In January 1881, Captain and Mrs Sutherland were sent from London to take charge of the work of the Salvos in Australia. By this time there were 68 soldiers (full members).

After its commencement in Adelaide, the Salvos opened in Melbourne and Sydney within two years and in Queensland in 1885.

Today The Salvation Army operates in every state and territory of Australia.

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Where have the Salvos most recently established a presence?

The idea of 'going global' has its roots in the Bible. Jesus commanded his followers to 'go and make disciples of all nations' (Matthew chapter 28, verse 19). For this reason, 'going global' has always been a critical priority for The Salvation Army.

Today, the Salvos continue to take the gospel message around the world.

Most recently in 2016, work officially began in Madagascar.

In the last decade, The Salvation Army has spread to the following countries: 

  • Kuwait (2008)
  • Mali (2008)
  • Mongolia (2008)
  • Naminia (2008)
  • Nepal (2009)
  • Nicaragua (2010)
  • Sierra Leone (2010)
  • UAE (2010)
  • Solomon Islands (2011)
  • Togo (2011)
  • Turks & Caicos (2011)
  • Cambodia (2012)
  • Greenland (2012)
  • Slovakia (2015)
  • Madagascar (2016)

The Salvation Army now works in over 130 countries.

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Do the Salvos have their own Pope?

The Salvation Army has an international leader who is called the General; he leads the work of the Salvos in over 130 countries.

To become General of The Salvation Army, a person (man or woman) must be a Christian who is ordained and commissioned as an officer (minister) in The Salvation Army. The electing body, referred to as the High Council, is composed of all active commissioners and territorial commanders in the world.

The General resides in London where The Salvation Army began its work in 1865. The founders of the Army were William and Catherine Booth. They chose a quasi-military command structure in 1878 when their congregation, The Christian Mission, changed its name to The Salvation Army.

William Booth was the Army's first General and, since then, another 19 Generals from around the world (including Generals Eva Burrows and George Carpenter from Australia) have served in the role.

The Army's current leader is General André Cox. General Cox was commissioned as a Salvo officer in 1979. He has served in Salvation Army appointments around the world including as a corps officer (minister), in finance, public relations, as a territorial commander and as the Chief of the Staff.

General Cox is married to Silvia, she is the world president of women's ministries in The Salvation Army. They have three daughters and two grandchildren.

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What does a Commissioner do?

In The Salvation Army, the rank of Commissioner is assigned by the General (the world leader of the Salvos). The roles of commissioners vary, but all carry a great weight of responsibility. 

In Australia, there are currently three active commissioners appointed in two territorys: two Commissioners are Territorial Commanders, the other is territorial president of women's ministries. In the Australia Southern Territory, it is my privilege to fulfil this role.

A territorial commander is responsible to the General for accomplishing the Salvo's mission of transforming lives, caring for people, and reforming society within a territory.

This person must provide visionary and practical leadership and inspire Salvos in their Christian faith. They are also responsible for the effective implementation of social service programs to meet human need, and for taking social action against evil in society.

Among other things, a territorial commander is also responsible for the legal constitution, property, and finances of the territory, as well as the development of officers (ministers) and soldiers (full members).

As territorial president of women's ministries, I share the demands of territorial leadership and ministry with the territorial commander, including preaching at and leading church services, and caring for the spiritual and physical welfare of all officers.

In particular, I am concerned with women officers and officers' children and work to encourage and develop women officers in their ministry and leadership. I oversee programs and ministry to women, by women and for women.

Commissioner Carolyn Knaggs

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Does The Salvation Army work with indigenous people?

Following the discovery of gold at Murchison in Western Australia in October 1891, General William Booth commissioned 12 Salvation Army ministers and sent them west.

The history of The Salvation Army's work in Western Australia and the goldfields is amazing. The army's work amongst indigenous people equalled their work among miners.

However, in those early days, the greatest work among indigenous people was in South Australia. Within three years of the Army's commencement in that state, there were more than 100 indigenous Salvation Army members.

The Salvation Army works with people all over Australia, and supports indigenous people with emergency accommodation, refuge through its domestic violence services, food parcels and general enquires.

Around the country there are some wonderful ministries taking place. At the Salvos in Alice Springs, there is a Sunday afternoon service for indigenous members, conducted by them in their native language.

Swan Hill in Victoria is another place where indigenous members of the congregation serve the wider Aboriginal community.

In 1997, the two Salvation Army Australian territories issued a statement on the reconciliation of Australia's indigenous people. The complete text is available on the Army website www.salvationarmy.org.au.

The statement concludes with the following comment.
'We will work together towards the healing of the wounds of the past and promote the ideals expressed in this statement as we move towards a shared future in the ongoing reconciliation process.'

Commissioner Raymond Finger

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Why don't the Salvos have communion?

Some people might be surprised to learn than communion is practiced among many Salvation Army members—although it is not represented in the ritual and observance that people commonly associate with communion that occurs as part of a church service.

It's worth considering whether or not Jesus intended to turn a beautiful moment in a common meal into a ritual. At the famed last supper, Jesus took bread and wine—two common elements on the meal table at the time—and issued an invitation for his people, when they came together, to remember his sacrificial death.

Is the means of remembrance more important than the remembrance itself? The Salvos say  'no'.

At most meals, it is common practice for Salvationists to say two prayers. One before the meal is eaten (referred to as 'grace' or a blessing). The second prayer comes at the end of the meal and is the 'remembrance' or returning thanks.

In that second prayer the life and death of Jesus is remembered with thankfulness and gratitude.

We believe the Army's practice of saying grace and returning thanks at each meal is a valid observance of communion.

At least this is how the Salvos have come to understand the Bible verse where the apostle Paul writes (in 1 Corinthians chapter 11, verse 26): 'For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes.'

Lieut-Col Aylene Finger

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How long have the Salvos had female ministers?

The work of women has been a distinctive feature of The Salvation Army since it began in 1865. It was the dream of Catherine Booth (co-founder of the Army) to bring about a new dawn for women, and that dream was born long before the Salvos began.

Before Catherine married William Booth (and they began what would become The Salvation Army together), she wrote to him about her idea of a new place for women in the church where their work would be validated by holding office, receiving an allowance, having authority and being respected.

Historically throughout the world, women within The Salvation Army have played a leading role in its growth and development. For instance, when the Salvos first began in Sydney in 1882, it was a woman—Mrs Adelaide Sutherland—who led the worship service and preached on that first day.

The enduring presence and work of women in The Salvation Army can be attributed to the fact that Catherine Booth was courageous enough to recognise that women share an equal calling with men in God's work.

Since 1881, women within The Salvation Army have been commissioned (ordained), received a rank and—in keeping with the military terminology used by the Salvos—been referred to as officers (ministers).

I have served as an officer for the past 34 years. As a woman, I remain indebted to God for leading me to a place in his church where I have been able to exercise my God-given gifts and invest in the lives of many. 

Lieut-Col Aylene Finger

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Why don't Salvos smoke cigarettes?

When it comes to social reform, The Salvation Army has long been ahead of its time. The same can be said in its response to some socially accepted norms.

In response to mounting evidence about the associated health risks with smoking, the wider community has become adverse to smoking in the workplace, on public transport and in cafes, restaurants, bars and shopping centres.

But, long before any anti-smoking laws were enforced, the inherent health problems and the cost associated with smoking were recognised by the Salvos and, as such, the use of tobacco was discouraged among its soldiers (members).

Since 1975, people who become Salvation Army soldiers have promised to live without using tobacco.

Every Salvationist signs a soldier's covenant that includes the following paragraph:

I will abstain from alcoholic drink, tobacco, the non-medical use of addictive drugs, gambling, pornography, the occult and all else that could enslave the body or spirit.

The explanation for not smoking is simply stated as, 'enslaving the body', or, in other words, addictive. It also needs to be said that smoking has become a habit that many cannot financially afford.

The intention for people who become Salvos is that they will love and serve God and live free from anything that gets in the way of living a life of wholesome simplicity.

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Who was William Booth?

William Booth, born in Nottingham, UK, on 10 April 1829, was the founder of The Salvation Army. Booth grew up in the Methodist Church and worked in a pawnbroker's shop.

He felt a calling on his life to become a full-time preacher and was offered a position as an evangelist for a few months with some financial support. This was the beginning of him being able to fulfil his life's calling.

In 1865 Booth started the Christian Mission, which was re-named in 1878 as The Salvation Army. Booth had a heart for the down-and-out in society. As he walked around the East End in London and saw people—the poorest of the poor—sleeping in the streets, Booth felt these were the people he should help.

Outside a pub called The Blind Beggar in June 1865, Booth stopped to listen to a group conducting an open-air meeting and he accepted an invitation to say a few words. Soon after, on 2 July in the Whitechapel district of London, Booth preached to hundreds and later declared to his wife, Catherine: 'I have found my destiny'.

Booth encountered opposition, but became a social reformer in his time. In 1890 he published a book, In Darkest England and the Way Out, and in 1891 opened a match factory to create employment. He also provided training in agriculture, shelter and food. While reaching out to help the poor, Booth encouraged the rich to use their wealth wisely.

Booth was a creative communicator and was ably supported and advised by his wife Catherine. Physically weak and blind after giving himself in total commitment to the calling on his life, Booth died on 20 August 1912.

Lieut-Colonel Jan Condon

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Is a Salvo Captain the same as a minister?

When William Booth commenced The Salvation Army, he decided to use military terminology for our structure and organisation. That's why we are called an Army and we have Officers (Captains and Majors etc); our members are called soldiers and our churches were once called citadels.

The Salvos' ordained ministers are called captains (along with a few other ranks) but are the same as ministers or pastors of other denominations. They study in a theological college and, after completing their training, are ordained and commissioned as an officer in The Salvation Army. Some Officers go on to postgraduate studies.

When commissioned and ordained, captains are sent to work in churches, social services centres or other areas of ministry within The Salvation Army. A Salvo captain in a Corps (church) carries out many of the same duties as a minister in another denomination (e.g. conducting church services, weddings, funerals, Bible studies, administration etc.).

However, there are other things Salvo captains are called upon to do that are inherent to The Salvation Army. For example you may see them in a pub, on the street or at a railway station distributing copies of Warcry and collecting funds, while connecting with the wider community. A Salvo Captain may also be involved in serving people at the scene of a disaster.

But the bottom line is that Salvation Army Captains are fully ordained ministers of the Christian religion and carry out the duties of their office similar to ministers in other denominations.

Lieut-Colonel James Condon

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Are the Salvos a church or a charity?

This is a really good question because it's not possible for the Salvos to be a church without being charitable. Therefore, it is both a church and a charity.

The Salvation Army thinks of itself in terms of a body with two arms, the spiritual and the social—with one hand we reach out to God and with the other we reach out to the world. I think that's a beautiful image.

And this 'two-in-one' focus is not new for us. From the commencement of The Salvation Army in London in the late 19th century, our founders, William and Catherine Booth, emphasised that we must exist in this fashion—as a church we must live out our Christianity.

It's crucial that our Christianity is expressed in charitable work. I don't see a separation between church and charity and, in fact, if there were ever to be a separation between the two, then The Salvation Army would cease to exist as it is known, understood and valued today.

If it were to be 'just' a church and failed to be charitable, then it would have no right to preach or speak about justice, compassion, or anything that affects the well-being of others.

But if, on the other hand, it were just a charity, it would fail to respond to the whole person—the body, mind and spirit.

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Why don't the Salvos have baptism?

To the vast majority of people, baptism is regarded as a distinctly Christian ritual. So it may seem odd to some and puzzling to others as to why it is not observed within The Salvation Army.

The Army has several distinctives that make it different to other denominations—its uniform, terminology and symbols to name a few. In respect to spirituality, the Army is fundamentally simple and uncluttered compared to some other churches.

In its early days, baptism was part of Salvation Army practice, but a decision was made that saw the discontinuation of any form of ritual that could be interpreted as a substitute for daily faith and dependence upon God.

Salvationists see such rituals as outward signs of an inward experience, and it is the inward experience that is of greatest importance to God.

The decision to discontinue baptism resulted from the question: Is baptism essential to a person becoming 'saved' or for one to continue in a relationship with God?

Based upon the Bible, the answer was clearly 'no', baptism is not regarded as essential to salvation or continued faith.

While some might accuse the Army of being disobedient to what the Bible teaches regarding baptism, it was and continues to be a way whereby people witness to their new found faith and conversion.

New believers within The Salvation Army testify publicly in worship and tell their story of conversion. When becoming members they are publicly enrolled, testify and sign a covenant of membership. Although no water is involved, the witness to one's faith is the same and some might even argue that personal testimony might be the greater witness.

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Is the Salvation Army a religion or a mix of denominations?

The short answer to this question is 'no'. The Salvation Army is not a religion nor is it a mix of denominations.

The Salvos stand independently as a denomination in the Christian church alongside other churches, for example, the Anglican, Baptist and Uniting church.

In the 1860s William Booth, the Salvos' founder, began reaching out to the masses living in poverty in London.

He preached that there was a God who could transform their lives and show them a new way. He fed them, prayed with them and thousands of people's lives were changed.

Booth, a Methodist minister, tried to introduce his converts to local Methodist churches, but the wider church at the time had lost much of its vision for what was then considered the underclasses, and would not accept them.

In less than 20 years, while it had not been his initial goal, he established a new denomination of the Christian church—The Salvation Army. Today, the Army upholds the cross of Christ and serves suffering humanity worldwide in 127 countries.

A good word to describe a denomination of the church is 'community'. The Salvos, like other churches, is a community of people that meets together in local neighbourhoods, regions or centres.

They worship God together; nurture faith, wholeness and integrity of life in their own lives and in the lives of others; and, in keeping with the 'DNA' of the Army, their faith shows itself in service to people with all kinds of material, emotional, physical and spiritual needs.

The Salvation Army is a great place to belong and I encourage you to go and find this out for yourself. Why not start with our website: salvos.org.au or salvationarmy.org.au?

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Why don't Salvos drink alcohol?

In 1884 the co-founder of The Salvation Army, Catherine Booth, published an article entitled 'Practical Religion'.

In this document she presented her argument for total abstinence on the part of religious workers associated with The Salvation Army.

In those days, cheap alcoholic drinks were available to the poor of East London. Catherine and her husband, William, saw much hardship and squalor as families were engulfed in an ever-downward cycle of misery, in part caused by alcoholism. Their hearts ached for these people.

Many were helped out of those difficult circumstances and, today, the Salvation Army continues to help people struggling with addictive behaviour. Each day The Salvation Army works with thousands of people all over the world who need to overcome alcoholism to allow them to live life more abundantly.

The Salvos feel that if they seek to assist people whose lives have been damaged by alcohol, then they should live a life of total abstinence as an example in personal discipline.

It's hardly appropriate for a Salvo to work towards helping someone overcome their alcoholism, then go home or to a pub and drink alcohol.

In consideration of the movement's background, people who are enrolled as members (soldiers) of a Salvation Army church (corps) believe that—as God has changed their lives—they need to demonstrate this change and take personal responsibility by refraining from the use of an addictive substance such as alcohol.

We don't condemn those who drink alcohol. Clearly an occasional social drink does not inevitably mean someone is or is becoming an alcoholic.

However, we believe that if we are seeking to help those addicted to its use, the integrity of our message is best demonstrated by our own example of total abstinence.

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Why do Salvos wear uniforms?

In the foundation days of The Salvation Army (The Christian Mission), William and Catherine Booth, co-founders , George Scott Railton and Bramwell Booth were moved to call this new Mission an Army.  The volunteers and ministers were called “Troops”.  By 1878, the whole movement had adopted military terminology and dress.

The uniform of the day was used to equialize the new members who came from all places in society,  It was also used to unify them in cause and commitment.  Knowing that their mission was to engage in spiritual warfare,  the uniform became a symbol of a visual reminder that they had accepted the call to Christ.  Underneath the uniform was a heart committed to God and a willingness to use their hands to reach humanity.

The Salvation Army uniform is one of the recognizable icons of the world.  This uniform shows itself in the pulpit, on the street corner, in hospitals and nursing homes.  It served food at Ground Zero in New York and at the floods and fires in Australia.

The uniform is the clerical garb of The Salvation Army officer (ordained minister) and is also worn by soldiers (local corps members),  It is a symbol to declare our faith to everyone and to make ourselves available for service.

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What is pastoral care?

Pastoral care is the compassionate caring ministry of spiritual leaders for people. It can involve anything from showing personal interest to counseling.

It is a ministry of listening.  Showing a pastoral interest in others means becoming an active listener. Someone has said that t is the most powerful form of listening. Why? Because it sends a signal that you're interested in and absorbing what the other person is saying.

It is also a ministry of encouragement. It is letting people know that they are supported personally and in prayer.  Such caring is focused on the person's behavior, emotional health and spiritual wellness.  In this sense, it is a holistic ministry, encouraging people to live life to the full, reach their potential and face life with hope.

The concept of pastor comes from the image of the shepherd who cares for the sheep, protecting, strengthening the weak, tending to their needs, bring refreshment and restoration.  Psalm 23 explains pastoral care as well as any passage in the Bible.

Then we come to the New Testament and see pastoral care modeled most perfectly by Jesus.  All the best we can say about pastoral care is what we see in the life of Jesus.  But he takes pastoral care to its heights, when it involves personal sacrifice.  The bible speaks of him as the good shepherd who lays down his life for the sheep.  (John 10).  If you want the clearest most accurate definition of pastoral care, read the gospels, look at Jesus.

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Do Salvos have modern music or just brass bands?

My initial response to this question is 'yes'—Salvos do have modern music as well as brass bands (that's assuming brass bands are not modern!).

The Salvation Army is blessed with many fine musicians who play a vast assortment of instruments including brass, wind, strings, drums etc. The important thing for me is that Salvos use whatever musical instrument is available to praise and worship God and connect with him.

In Papua New Guinea (where I have just spent three-and-a-half years), the Salvos only have one brass band. The main instrument used for worship there is guitar and the worship in PNG is passionate and connects with God.

I have also been the minister at some of the largest Salvo churches in Australia where the brass band has played contemporary music as part of its repertoire.

God is not concerned about what music we use to worship or what instrument we play, so long as worship helps us him and enables us to connect with him.

Both brass bands and modern music can be therapy for our soul and greatly enhance worship. However, I realise that everyone responds to a different style of music. So whichever style helps you connect with God—go for it.

And don't be surprised when you visit a Salvation Army church meeting if you hear a wide range of music styles. Usually the music played depends on what musicians are available.

Lieut-Colonel James Condon

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How many Salvos churches and shops are in Australia?

The Salvation Army has churches in every state and territory of Australia. In the Australian Southern Territory (VIC, TAS, SA, NT, WA) there is a total of 161 Corps.

  • Victoria: 88
  • Tasmania: 14
  • South Australia: 28
  • Northern Territory: 4
  • Western Australia: 27

We conduct Christian worship services on Sundays and also throughout the week.

Some services are in Chinese, Korean and Indigenous languages, but anyone is most welcome to visit any of our churches and experience our worship and service.

A great variety of other programs for all age groups is offered throughout the week.

The Salvation Army has two types of stores: those managed by Salvos Stores and those managed by the local church.

Salvos stores create an environment in keeping with the Salvation Army mission, provide financial resources for the Salvation Army and child sponsorship programs.

The stores provide customers with pre-loved and new goods at an affordable price. Pre-loved goods include high-quality furniture, clothing and homeware. Brand-new products include household cleaning and personal care products and various Christmas gifts.

Church-managed and church-based stores also promote the Army's mission and provide an avenue for people to give voluntary service. They also provide vital financial support for the churches to carry out their mission to serve the disadvantaged and provide goods at affordable prices.

In the Australian Southern Territory (VIC, TAS, SA, NT, WA) there are a total of 216 Salvos Stores.

Why not visit a Salvos Store and discover the opportunities for yourself?

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Are Salvos concerned about the environment?

As Christians, the Salvos consider this question from at least two perspectives.

The first is that we believe that God created the world and the Bible says that God saw it was good. God also gave the world to people to inhabit and enjoy. He did not give it to us to destroy, but to propagate and use for our benefit.

God considered people worthy to rule over the land and animals he created. This includes protecting it and using it for the common good of all.

Salvos are also concerned about the environment because we are stewards of all we have. When God gave people the right to rule over the earth, he intended that we care for it as if it were our own property.

The second Salvo perspective is concern for the environment on behalf of others and future generations. A true Christian response is one that cares about others before self and this includes our care of the environment. We want to protect it for others to enjoy long after we have died. This demonstrates our love and care for others and also respect for our creator God who made this beautiful world.

So, yes, the Salvos are concerned about the environment because God, our creator, has entrusted the world to us, and because we want to preserve the earth for future generations to experience as God intended.

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Who was Eva Burrows?

The Salvation Army began in 1878 and, at any stage, has only one world leader. This person, in accordance with the para-military style of the movement, is known as the General. Eva Burrows was an Australian woman who became the 13th General of The Salvation Army.

Born in Newcastle, NSW on 15 September 1929, Eva was the daughter of Salvation Army officer (minister) parents.

She gained a Bachelor of Arts at Queensland University before being called to become a Salvation Army officer. After doing her ministry training in London, she was commissioned as a Salvation Army officer in 1951.

As a young Salvo, Eva sensed a compelling call to work in Africa, and her first appointment was as an officer/teacher at the Howard Institute, a large mission station in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). The next few decades saw Eva serve the Salvos in England, Ireland, Sri Lanka, Scotland and Australia.

In 1986 the international leaders of The Salvation Army formed what is known as the 'High Council' and elected Eva to become General. She took office on 9 July 1986 and retired in July 1993.

As General, Eva Burrows visited more than 50 countries and made contact with people at all levels of society, from hostel residents to heads of state and government. It was her easy demeanour with others that saw her bestowed with the title of 'the people's General'.

In 'retirement', General Burrows continued to be a much sought-after speaker and advisor at international level, while enjoying being part of a local congregation with The Salvation Army in Melbourne.

Eva Burrows died (or in Army terminology was 'Promoted to Glory') on the 20th of March 2015.

Read more about Eva Burrows

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